AI Review for Purchase of Goods Agreements

Learn how integrating AI contract review into your Purchase of Goods Agreements can improve your contract negotiation, ensuring clarity, precision, and mutual understanding.

What is a Purchase of Goods Agreement?

A Purchase of Goods Agreement (PGA) is a document that outlines the terms and conditions for a singular, standalone transaction between a buyer and a seller. This type of agreement is specifically tailored for instances where a buyer intends to purchase a specific quantity of goods on a one-time basis. Unlike ongoing contracts, a one-off PGA does not contemplate future transactions or recurring orders.

In contrast to a Master Purchase Agreement (PSA), which is designed for ongoing contractual relationships, the PGA is designed to be comprehensive and self-contained, addressing all aspects of the single transaction it covers. This specificity and limitation to a single transaction makes it distinct and more straightforward compared to more complex, ongoing contractual relationships such as in a PSA.

Industry Applications of Purchase of Goods Agreements

Purchase of Goods Agreements are used across various industries, particularly in sectors where the procurement of physical goods is a routine aspect of business operations. Some common industry applications include:

  1. Manufacturing: The manufacturing industry heavily relies on PGAs for sourcing raw materials and components essential for their production processes.
  2. Retail: Retailers, both in brick-and-mortar and e-commerce, regularly engage in these agreements to stock their inventories with goods for sale to consumers.
  3. Electronics: The electronics industry, known for its need for specific, high-quality components, often enters into PGAs to secure the necessary parts for their products.

These agreements provide a structured and legally binding framework for transactions, ensuring a steady and reliable supply of goods.

Top Provisions to Consider in a Purchase of Goods Agreement

The most important provisions in a PGA typically encompass several key elements that ensure clarity and protect the interests of both parties. These crucial provisions include:

  1. Detailed Description of the Product: This includes specifications, quality standards, and quantities. A clear and precise description of the goods being purchased is essential to ensure that the buyer receives exactly what they expect and to minimize the potential for disputes.
  2. Pricing and Payment Terms: This provision outlines the agreed-upon price for the goods and the terms of payment, including the method of payment, the timing of payments, and any applicable discounts or late payment penalties.
  3. Delivery Terms: This specifies the timeline, method, and location for the delivery of goods, and often includes terms related to shipping costs and risk of loss. Clear delivery terms are important to ensure that the goods are received by the buyer in a timely manner and in good condition.
  4. Warranties and Guarantees: These provisions provide assurances about the quality and condition of the goods, offering remedies in cases of defects or non-compliance with the specifications. Warranties and guarantees protect the buyer by ensuring that they receive goods that meet their expectations and requirements.
  5. Dispute Resolution Mechanisms and Governing Law: These clauses are incorporated to outline the procedures for handling any disagreements that arise and to determine the legal jurisdiction and laws that will govern the agreement. Having clear dispute resolution procedures can help to minimize the potential for costly and time-consuming legal battles.

In addition to these top provisions, a comprehensive Purchase of Goods Agreement should also include:

  1. Inspection and Acceptance: This provision outlines the buyer's right to inspect the goods upon delivery and the procedures for accepting or rejecting the goods if they do not meet the agreed-upon specifications.
  2. Intellectual Property Rights: If the goods being purchased include any intellectual property, such as software or designs, the agreement should clearly define the ownership and licensing rights for that intellectual property.
  3. Confidentiality: If the transaction involves the exchange of any confidential information, the agreement should include provisions to protect the confidentiality of that information.
  4. Termination: The agreement should specify the circumstances under which either party can terminate the agreement and the consequences of termination.
  5. Force Majeure: This provision excuses a party's non-performance under the agreement when certain circumstances arise that are beyond the party's control, such as natural disasters or government actions.

Checklist for a Good Purchase of Goods Agreement

To ensure that your Purchase of Goods Agreement is effective, comprehensive, and legally sound, use this checklist:

  •  Include a detailed description of the goods, including specifications and quantities
  •  Clearly define the price and payment terms
  •  Specify the delivery terms, including method, timeline, and location
  •  Include warranties and guarantees regarding the quality and condition of the goods
  •  Outline the procedures for inspection and acceptance of the goods
  •  Define the ownership and licensing rights for any intellectual property
  •  Include confidentiality provisions, if applicable
  •  Specify the circumstances for termination and the consequences of termination
  •  Include a force majeure clause
  •  Specify the governing law and dispute resolution mechanisms
  •  Have the agreement reviewed by legal counsel
  •  Ensure the agreement is signed by authorized representatives of both parties

AI Contract Review for Purchase of Goods Agreements

To give you a sense for the benefits of leveraging contract ai trained by lawyers, we’ve selected some sample language our software presents to customers during a review. Keep in mind that these are static in this overview, but dynamic in our software - meaning our AI identifies the key issues and proactively surfaces alerts based on importance level and position (company, 3rd party, or neutral) and provides suggested revisions that mimic the style of the contract and align with party names and defined terms.

These samples represent less than 5% of the pre-built, pre-trained Legal AI Contract Review solution for Purchase of Goods Agreements. If you’d like to see more, we invite you to book a demo.


For: Purchaser

Alert: May be missing a clause stating that there are no security interests in the product.

Guidance: In a Purchase of Goods Agreement, it is vital for the buyer to obtain a clear title to the goods, free from any encumbrances or third-party claims. To achieve this, the seller should include a representation and warranty stating that there are no existing security interests or liens on the product being sold.

This provision is critical for the buyer, as it offers assurance and protection against potential legal disputes or financial liabilities arising from undisclosed security interests in the product. For example, if the buyer acquires machinery that was previously used as collateral for a loan, a clause confirming that there are no security interests in the product shields the buyer from potential legal disputes and financial liabilities stemming from the lender's claim on the machinery.

To adhere to relevant laws and regulations, the parties should consider the UCC, specifically Article 9, which governs secured transactions and outlines rules for the creation, perfection, and enforcement of security interests in personal property. By incorporating a clause addressing security interests in the Purchase of Goods Agreement, the buyer can ensure compliance with the UCC and benefit from the legal protections it offers.

However, it is crucial to note that the buyer may still want to conduct a UCC search to verify the absence of any security interests or liens on the goods, as relying solely on the seller's representation and warranty may not be sufficient to safeguard the buyer's interests.

Sample Language:


SELLER represents and warrants to PURCHASER, as of the date of delivery of the Products, as follows:

a. the quality of the Products conforms to the specifications set forth in this Agreement;

b. the Products are free from any design, manufacturing, or warning defects in all material respects;

c. the Products do not infringe on any patent rights, trademark rights, or any other intellectual property rights of third parties; and

d. SELLER has good and clear title to the Products, free from all encumbrances.


For: Seller

Alert: May be missing a clause designating the place for delivery.

Guidance: In a Purchase of Goods Agreement, it is crucial to define a precise and specific delivery location to facilitate a seamless transaction and reduce the risk of legal disputes. By incorporating a clause that designates the delivery location, both parties can agree on a particular location, such as the buyer's warehouse or manufacturing facility. This clarity diminishes the likelihood of disputes and fosters a more efficient transaction process.

For instance, when a buyer enters into an agreement with a supplier for the delivery of raw materials, having a designated delivery location ensures that the supplier knows exactly where to deliver the goods, and the buyer can plan accordingly for the receipt and storage of the materials, avoiding any confusion or delays.

While there might not be specific statutes or laws that require the inclusion of a delivery location clause in a Purchase of Goods Agreement, the UCC offers guidance on the general principles of contracts for the sale of goods. Specifically, UCC Section 2-308 governs the place for delivery of goods in a sales contract and emphasizes the importance of clear and specific terms in contracts, including delivery terms.

Sample Language:


[Pattern 1] 

1. PURCHASER shall accept delivery of the Products <mark>at the place of SELLER.</mark>

2. All costs for the delivery of the Products shall be borne by PURCHASER.

3. SELLER shall deliver the Products by [date of delivery].

[Pattern 2 (Incoterms)]

1. The terms and costs for the delivery of the Products shall be decided in accordance with [EXW (name of place), Incoterms 2020].

2. SELLER shall deliver the Products by [date of delivery].


For: Purchaser

Alert: May include a provision regarding deemed acceptance of products should buyer fail to notify seller of rejection.

Guidance: In a Purchase of Goods Agreement, it is vital to safeguard the buyer's interests by allowing them the flexibility to accept or reject goods based on quality and conformity to the contract. One approach to achieve this is by eliminating provisions that automatically consider goods accepted if the buyer fails to notify the seller of rejection within a specific time frame. This grants the buyer more time to inspect and evaluate the goods, ensuring they meet their standards and requirements.

For example, if a buyer receives a large shipment of electronic components and discovers some are damaged or defective, the buyer should not be forced to accept these goods simply because they were unable to notify the seller within a specified time frame. By removing such provisions, the buyer can negotiate a resolution with the seller without being bound by strict time constraints.

It is crucial to consider relevant laws and regulations, such as the UCC Article 2, which governs the sale of goods. The UCC outlines guidelines for the acceptance of goods, including the buyer's right to inspect and reject non-conforming goods. Aligning the Purchase of Goods Agreement with the UCC ensures the buyer's rights and interests are protected.

Additionally, the ""perfect tender rule"" under UCC § 2-601 is a significant exception that allows the buyer to reject non-conforming goods, even if the non-conformity is minor. However, parties can modify or limit the application of this rule in their Purchase of Goods Agreement, making it essential to consider such exceptions and doctrines when drafting the agreement.

Sample Language:


1. PURCHASER may reject any Products that are damaged, defective, or do not conform to the requirements under this Agreement with a written notice of rejection to SELLER. 

2. Payment by PURCHASER for the Products shall not be an acceptance of the Non-Conforming Products, nor shall payment be a confirmation that the Products were free from defects. 

3. After PURCHASER inspects the Products and confirms their conformance with the requirements, PURCHASER shall promptly issue a certificate of acceptance to SELLER.

Best Practices for Using Purchase of Goods Agreements

To make the most of your Purchase of Goods Agreements and ensure their effectiveness, follow these best practices:

  1. Be Specific: The more specific and detailed your PGA is, the less room there is for misunderstandings or disputes. Be sure to clearly define the goods being purchased, including any relevant specifications, quantities, and quality standards.
  2. Negotiate Terms: While a template can provide a good starting point, it's important to negotiate the specific terms of your agreement to ensure that they align with your business goals and needs. Be prepared to discuss and negotiate key provisions such as pricing, delivery terms, and warranties.
  3. Consider Future Needs: Even though a PGA is typically used for a one-time transaction, consider whether there's a likelihood of needing to purchase the same or similar goods in the future. If so, you may want to consider using a Master Purchase Agreement instead.
  4. Conduct Due Diligence: Before entering into a PGA, conduct due diligence on the other party. For buyers, this means verifying the seller's ability to deliver the goods as promised. For sellers, this means verifying the buyer's ability to pay for the goods.
  5. Keep Good Records: After the agreement is signed, keep a copy of the fully executed PGA along with any related documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, and shipping documents. Good recordkeeping can be invaluable in the event of a dispute.
  6. Communicate With the Other Party: Maintain open lines of communication with the other party throughout the transaction. This can help to identify and resolve any issues that may arise, such as delays in delivery or problems with the quality of the goods.
  7. Be Prepared to Enforce Your Rights: If the other party breaches the agreement, be prepared to enforce your rights. This may involve invoking the dispute resolution procedures outlined in the agreement or, if necessary, pursuing legal action.


Purchase of Goods Agreements are essential tools for businesses that need to procure goods on a one-time basis. By clearly defining the terms and conditions of the transaction, including detailed product descriptions, pricing and payment terms, delivery requirements, warranties, and dispute resolution procedures, these agreements provide a framework for a successful and legally protected business transaction.

To ensure the effectiveness of your Purchase of Goods Agreements, it's important to include comprehensive provisions that address the unique needs and risks of your specific industry and transaction. The agreement should be tailored to your particular circumstances, thoroughly reviewed by legal counsel, and actively managed throughout the transaction process.

By following best practices for negotiating, drafting, and executing your Purchase of Goods Agreements, you can ensure a smooth and successful transaction that meets your business needs while minimizing legal and financial risks.

Our guides are for informational purposes only. Such information is not legal advice and is not guaranteed to be correct, complete, or an up-to-date representation of LegalOn's legal content. Nor is the information tailored to the unique needs or objectives that accompany each transaction. For legal advice for a specific problem, you should consult an attorney licensed to practice law in the appropriate jurisdiction for each transaction.

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